Rails Authorization Plugins

Updated 2009-05-23

There seems to be a consensus to choose AuthLogic or restful_authentication as the Rails way of securely identifying the users, at least with local user databases (in contrast to e.g. OpenID authentication). For restricting the access rights of the individual users, i.e. authorization, the situation is different with lots of alternatives. This is probably due to the varying requirements that projects have in the case of authorization. While there are lists and surveys of Rails authorization plugins, I was missing an overview that could help in the decision making process of choosing the right plugin for my specific requirements.

I tried to examine each plugin according to a few aspects.

  • Access control may be enforced on different layers, in the model, for controller actions and in views.
  • Most plugins have some user and role concept for restricting access. Authorization constraints allow more fine-grained decisions, though, by defining conditions that need to be met, probably on a context object, in order to grant access.
  • It is common to define access rules through Access Control Lists (ACL) whereby an object has a list of users or roles that are allowed to operate on the object. ACLs may increase authorization maintenance as new users or roles need to be added at multiple places. In contrast, Privileges, as known from RBAC, are a further abstraction. Thus, users or roles may possess privileges, which are, on the other hand, assigned as a requirement to operations on the objects.
  • Simplicity helps so that it is a common rule to use the least complex solution possible for a given task. While it is difficult to evaluate complexity without working in-depth with an authorization plugin, I still tried to give a rough estimate of each plugins complexity from an application developer’s point of view.

My conclusion (disclaimer: I’m the author of declarative_authorization): depending on the size of your project, you face roughly three options:

  • Go for a simple solution which most likely won’t cover all the edge cases, like role_requirement.
  • Follow a simple recipe and roll your own authorization mechanism. This way, you won’t depend on any maintainer to keep the plugin up-to-date. Also, it will be easier to modify it to your requirements.
  • If you see more complex scenarios on the horizon, say more than three roles, maybe even role hierarchies, you should seriously look into the more complex, but also more maintainable options, such as declarative_authorization.  Having all your authorization rules in one place helps greatly when the rules need to be modified.

A table of the evaluated authorization plugins, roughly sorted by activity:

Restrictions for M C V Constraints Privileges Complexity Activity
Authorization Yes Yes No Yes No medium recently
Restrictions based on pseudo natural language sentences; decisions based on role ACLs on models or model instances
declarative_authorization Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes medium recently
Declarative approach: separation of authorization logic from program code for maintainability
acl9 No Yes Yes Yes No medium recently
Access control list with simple role model allowing to bind roles to specific objects. Constraints through custom has_role methods on models.
RESTful_ACL Yes Yes Yes Yes No simple recently
Restrictions based on permission methods on models for CRUD operations; no role concept built in; seems to be restricted to CRUD controller actions
Padlock Authorization Yes Yes No Yes No medium recently
Allows for objects to have roles according to specific users.
redpill_access_control No Yes Yes No No medium recently
Uses access restrictions to controller actions for restrictions in views.
Authorize No Yes Yes No No high recently
Has a subject/trustee concept for specifying relationships regarding authorization.
role_requirement No Yes No No No simple recently
Role-based ACLs for restrictions on controller actions
ActsAsAuthorizable Yes No No Yes No medium 2008
Restrictions based on pseudo natural language sentences; decisions based on role ACLs on models or model instances
base_auth Yes Yes Yes Yes No simple 2008
User object-based restrictions on controller actions and views
Role-ful Yes No No Yes Yes medium 2008
Defines roles in the user object that can be queried through instance methods.
Easy Access Yes No No Yes Yes simple 2008
Helps defining can_be_[action]_by on the model.
Blubber No Yes No No No simple 2008
Used by defining [role]_acl methods on the controller.
acts_as_checkpoint Yes Yes No Yes No simple 2008
Role-based restrictions on controller actions; simple model restrictions through methods on models, employing associations
ActsAsPermissible Yes No No No No medium 2008
Provides the basic necessity of authorization: the model methods for assigning permissions and roles to users and retrieving the merged permissions.
acl_system2 No Yes Yes No No simple 2007
Role-based ACLs for restrictions on controller actions and in views; similar: Simple Access Control
ActiveRbac No Yes No No Yes medium 2007
Implements only the queries on model instances for access rights
access_control No Yes No No No simple 2007
Simple controller action restrictions based on Unix-style rwx ACLs
UserEngine No Yes No No Yes medium 2006
Controller/action-based privileges assigned to roles for filtering access to controller actions
ActiveAcl Yes No No Yes Yes high 2006
Complex database design to allow arbitrary user – role – privilege – object relations

Let me know if I missed important aspects of those plugins or other plugins that you like.


  1. Thanks for reviewing RESTful_ACL!

  2. Thanks for checking out acts_as_checkpoint, as well.

  3. [...] looked through quite a few existing Rails authorization plugins, we decided, we were in need of a different approach.  Mainly, it was the missing separation of [...]

  4. you forgot to mention the acts_as_permissible (http://github.com/NoamB/acts_as_permissible/).

  5. Thanks. I added that one.

  6. [...] de resolver o problema porém ainda faltava maior suporte. Pesquisei plugins e encontrei esse review, muito bom por sinal, nele o autor cria uma nova solução completa separando a lógica do acesso [...]

  7. excellent,
    this is a very well done comparision …
    … and your solution is fantastic, i hope it will become the de-facto std as AAA

  8. Can you add acl9?

    It looks like there has never been any clear “winner” in the ACL department for rails… at least not with a good range of features like yours has. I think I’m going to start with role_requirement because it’s really simple to get me started, although I think long term I’ll switch to something more capable. Also, more people seem to be using role_requirement, as far as I can tell (probably again because of the simplicity).

  9. I added acl9, thanks for mentioning it.

    I don’t think there needs to be any “winner”. For simple requirements, such as admin and guest users, role_requirement will be fine. If you already expect more complex scenarios, I strongly suggest looking into declarative_authorization.


  10. Very nice plugin you have. Any reason why not to store the authorization rules into the database? I really want to use your plugin, but I want to let users administer rules and roles. Any plans for a addon someday?

    My programming skills are sadly not good enough to write such a solution. Or do you have any other idea for a solution?


    PS: Du kannst mir auch gerne ein Email schreiben und dann unterhalten wir uns weiter auf Deutsch :)

  11. Please, use the decl_auth Google Group for any questions regarding the plugin. Thanks.

  12. [...] Rails Authorization Plugins [...]

  13. Thank you for this comprehensive list of authorization plugins, it is very useful. Could you add CanCan to this list? It is a plugin I’ve been working on which is very simple (currently under 100 lines of code) but offers a lot of flexibility.


  14. Looks interesting. I added cancan to my backlog. Hopefully, I will update the list soon.

  15. What do you thing of Lockdown [1] ?

    [1] http://stonean.com/page/lockdown

  16. Lockdown is already on my backlog. I really need to revise this post.

  17. + 1 for adding CanCan to the list: it is actually really usable, and could manage simple to complex scenarios
    (thank you, Ryan Bates)

  18. It seems that none of these plugins allow for dynamic permission setting (where an admin can grant permission on specific objects to roles in a live system).

    Did I miss something?

    Why not store the permissions in a table rather than in a file?

  19. [...] I’m aware there are quite a few other plugins out there. If you found another one and you’re very happy about it, please share. Tagged [...]

  20. Hi,

    Looks like you haven’t added Cancan yet to your list.
    That would be a great plus to this already very good reference page.

    Thanks in advance ;-)

  21. Hi,

    some people have asked for a plug-in that could keep the roles assignment in the database, so that the role management can be dynamically configured. Is anyone aware of a good plug-in that implements this requirement?

    Many thanx in advance!

  22. +1 for updating this really useful list, and adding Can Can :-)

    It would be good to provide an example or tutorial on how to integrate declarative_authorization with devise

  23. been checking one by one on the list, and the most part of it is outdated/left/does’nt exist.

    this list must definitely be updated!

  24. [...] There are so many plugins available outside for implementing this Authorization. I decided to do it on my own since this is a simple authorization application, but if you want to go for complex scenarios I suggest you check this link [...]